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Guidelines to X-ray Inspection of Glass Containers

About Peco-InspX and CEO Rich Cisek

Peco-Inspx is an expert in x-ray system design, application engineering, and operations. Peco-InspX has tremendous experience in demanding, high-performance applications. Rich Cisek himself has years of hands-on experience.

Peco-InspX was Built on material experience in Silicon Valley and design of Air Traffic control systems and has a deep background in data-driven operational optimization. Peco-InspX has been designing solutions for Food and Beverage Customers since 1953. Peco-InspX has extensive experience in high-performance x-ray applications but also does vision, seal inspection and product handling operations.

Why Inspect Glass With X-ray?

Source Manufacturing Contamination:  While manufacturers use specialized inspection equipment, the process isn’t perfect resulting in recalls.
Neighbor Contamination:  During operational product handling, fragments can land in open jars
Filling and Capping Contamination:  Fillers can score glass bottles – breaking off chips, capping machines can break off the top of jars. Filler/capper rinsing is not a 100% effective way of ensuring these contaminants are removed.
Very High Rate of Technical Change:  Advances in imaging hardware and software are dramatically improving the capability of x-ray systems.
Quality Management Systems Versus an X-Ray Machine:  A more sophisticated way of doing inspections and ensuring everything is properly inspected.  Images can be serialized to match a physical product

X-ray Inspection Performance

X-ray Inspection machines have conditions and capabilities that are interdependent of each other. The following components and their relationships are described below: The type of data the machines produce, and under what conditions, as well as the capabilities of machines and limitations to inspection.

The type of Data parameters X-ray machines can provide include the following:

  • Container Integrity: Find container imperfections including thin sidewalls.
  • Foreign Material Detection:  Detect glass, metal and other foreign material.
  • Fill Volume Measurement:  Much more accurate than simple fill level measurement.
  • Filler Valve  Monitoring:  Get very precise insight to fill level performance.
  • Cap/Crown Presence:  No external hardware needed

Certain conditions determine the accuracy and effectiveness of X-ray inspection these include:

  • Glass Constituency:  Glass consistency negatively correlated with inspection sensitivity
  • Speed:  Very high-speed applications lose inspection some degree of inspection fidelity.
  • Product Noise:  How clean is the image?
  • Image Signal to Noise Ratio:   Measure of the quality of the image (mainly determined by an X-ray tube and imaging detector)
  • Level of Image Contrast:  Driven by current load on the X-ray tube
  • Density of Contaminants


In addition to conditions determining accuracy, there are also conditions to consider for the best applications of when and where to use an inspection machine including:

  • Contaminant Types and Likely Location in Container
  • Conveyance: Can the containers be transferred or is a “non-contact” solution better?
  • Container Spacing:  Can containers be reliably spaced?
  • Line Space:  How much room is available?
  • Budget/ROI:  How sophisticated of a machine is required
  • Operational Capabilities:  How would this get operated in the plant?

How do X-ray Machines Work?

Physics of Operation is Simple:  Looking for differences in density; food is mostly water and so things are more dense than water are  generally detectable
4 basic components:

X-ray Tube

600 W Metal Ceramic X-Ray Tube

  • X-ray source
  • Imaging detector
  • Analysis computer
  • Image Storage device

 

2 Basic Approaches

  • Linear Diode Array (0.4 mm and 0.8 mm pitch)
  • 2 D Imaging Sensor

Basic Machine Design Approaches

side view of multi-beam

Side view of Multi-Beam

Geometry Based Solution To Handle Container Push Up

  • Multiple Beams
  • Special Location to See Over Push Up

Multi-Beam Approach to Address  Asymmetric Contaminants

 

 

SHIELD Solo and Solo Plus

Shield Solo Machine

Shield Solo Machine

Advanced Side-View X-Ray designed to inspect rigid containers (metal cans. composite cans, plastic containers). Also available in a Solo Plus configuration for larger containers. Mounts over customer conveyor system.

 

 

 

 

 

SHIELD Trio

SHIELD Trio Machine

SHIELD Trio Machine

Shield Trio Xray layout

X-ray View of SHIELD Trio Machine

Advanced Triple-Side-View X-Ray system designed to inspect glass containers for glass and steel fragments. This machine mounts over the customer conveyor system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

SHIELD Glissando Machine

SHIELD Glissando Machine

X-ray view of Shield Glissando

X-ray view of SHIELD Glissando

SHIELD Glissand0

Advanced Dual-Side-View X-Ray system designed to inspect glass containers for glass fragments.
Utilizes 
a unique “see-thru” conveying system for high-resolution base inspection.

 

Fill Level Monitoring

More accurate than commercial fill level monitors, Detect Fill Weight By +/- 0.5 %

  • Replace existing stand-alone fill level monitor with more capable x-ray
  • Easily detect low fills and empty containers

    Image Data Storing Graphic

    Machines have different data storage options

Image Management

  • Place a “cause of reject” identification mark on every rejected container to assist with visual reject analysis
  • Store every reject image, can be viewed off-line
  • Store every good image, provides robust consumer complaint analysis data
  • Re-run all good images off-line, basically facilitates the inspection of all product in the warehouse without a physical re-run on the production line

 

 

 


If you still have questions regarding X-ray Inspection after reading this blog post, we highly recommend watching the full version of the Webinar here, and scheduling a time to talk with a representative from Peco-Inspx.

If you want more helpful resources from Peco-InspX visit https://www.peco-inspx.com/lp/resources